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Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily.
Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.
The sensory information from these organs is processed by the brain.
In insects, many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive—the cell bodies serve only to provide metabolic support and do not participate in signalling.
In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.Recent findings indicate that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, serve as important resident immune cells within the central nervous system.The vertebrate nervous system can also be divided into areas called grey matter ("gray matter" in American spelling) and white matter.There is an anatomical convention that a cluster of neurons in the brain or spinal cord is called a nucleus, whereas a cluster of neurons in the periphery is called a ganglion.There are, however, a few exceptions to this rule, notably including the part of the forebrain called the basal ganglia Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve cord made up of two parallel connectives running along the length of the belly.